Chinese tea is a great contribution to the health of people on earth. The ancestor of Chinese tea is Shennong, and Shennong is also the ancestor of tea in the world. Chinese tea has spread all over the world to improve health, happiness and physical and mental harmony, adding infinite charm to the concept of health and Zen tea culture.
When does China start drinking tea? Everyone has different opinions. But generally speaking, it began in the Han Dynasty and prevailed in the Tang Dynasty. Before the Tang Dynasty, when drinking tea, Lu Yu's "drinking of six teas" under the volume of the book of tea refers to "drinking of tea, originated from Shennong family, heard from Duke Zhou of Lu, Yan Ying in Qi, Yang Xiong and Sima Xiangru in Han, Wu Youwei Yao, Liu Kun, Zhang Zai, yuanzuna, Xie an and Zuo Si in Jin all drink tea." But it's mostly not historical. Even if it is a historical fact, it is not easy to understand without making an explanation.
The book of tea says: Shennong's book of food: "long service of tea and tea is powerful and joyful" (Volume I of the history of tea by Liu Yuanchang). Lu Yu thought that drinking tea originated from Shennong in the book of tea, but the book of food is a fake book, which is well known and unsubstantiated.
"Erya" has the sentence of "bitter tea". The world takes "Erya" as the work of Duke Zhou. It is falsely believed that drinking tea began from Duke Zhou. I don't know that "Erya" is not made in Duke Zhou. It is not enough for the beginning of tea drinking
"Yanzi spring and autumn · miscellaneous part of the internal chapter" said that "Yanzi was in line, dressed in ten liters of cloth, ate the food of millet, and only five eggs and moss". It thought that drinking tea (i.e. tea) began in the spring and Autumn period. However, the spring and Autumn Annals of Yanzi was not written by Qi Yanying, so it is difficult to establish. And WAN Weiting's eight volumes of the collection of records and evidence of learning difficulties said: "(according to the Huai) this volume of Yanzi spring and autumn · miscellaneous parts of internal chapters is used as three Yi and five Mao moss vegetables, and the 867 volumes of imperial reading are cited as tea, carrying people to tea..." although it is used as tea, it is not tea for tea, I'm afraid it is not tea for tea. Therefore, tea drinking is not seen in the classics. The world also takes the poem "who is the bitter tea" as the evidence of drinking tea. I don't know that this tea is the tea of bitter vegetables, not the tea of "bitter tea", so I can't wear it. It seems that in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, there is no wind of drinking tea. Therefore, the first book of Zhou rites, Tianguan and Jiazai states that the pulp man provides the king with six drinks, one is water, two is pulp, three is Lily, four is cool, five is medicine, and six is unitary ①. I haven't seen tea yet.
Since the Han Dynasty, records of tea drinking have been heard from time to time. During the Three Kingdoms period, Wu sunhao drank only seven liters of wine from his ministers, while Wei Yao only drank two liters. Either to cut down or give tea as wine (Biography of Wu Zhi Wei Yao in the annals of the Three Kingdoms), tea may have been used for entertaining guests. Otherwise, why is there tea at the banquet? Zhang Hua of the Jin Dynasty tasted that "drinking real tea makes people sleep less" (Zhang Hua's annals of natural history), which is also the wind of drinking tea in the Jin Dynasty. Therefore, tea has a long history. The tea description of song Peihan said: "tea originated in the Eastern Jin Dynasty and flourished in the present (Song Dynasty)." Solid error.
"Luoyang Jialan Ji" said that tea drinking began in the Tianjian period of emperor Liang Wu of the Southern Dynasty, which was especially wrong. The so-called style of tea drinking can be found in the Han and Wei dynasties, but not in the Han and Wei dynasties. Since this style was not yet common in the northern and Southern Dynasties, there are two anecdotes about the Han and Wei dynasties in the miscellaneous records of the history of tea: when King Xiao of Qi first entered the Wei Dynasty, he did not eat mutton pastry, often ate fresh fish soup, and drank tea juice thirsty. When he saw Xiao drinking a bucket, he was called leaky rice. Later, he met with the Gaozu to eat mutton cheese porridge. The Gaozu asked him strangely. In the future, sheep were the ancestor of land animals, Fish is the strength of the aquarium, which is different from what they like, and they are called treasures... Tea is not the best, and they are slaves with cheese. Gaozu laughed. Because tea is called cheese slave, King Peng Chengwang dug up and offered it to Xiao and said: "tomorrow, you will take care of me to set up tea Ju meal for you (i.e. fish). There are also cheese slaves."
When Xiao Zhengde came back, Yuan Yi wanted to set up tea. First, he asked Qing how much he was in the water. Zhengde didn't know his meaning. A day later, he replied: the lower official was born in a water town. Since he was founded, he hasn't been difficult by Yang Hou, so he sat down and laughed.
According to the former saying, scholars in the capital of Wei Dynasty after the Northern Dynasty saw Xiao, king of Qi, drinking tea, which was cited as strange, and the number was leaky; From the latter point of view, you Yang especially wants to prepare tea for Xiao Zhengde. One is rare and strange, and the other is not household goods, which is at least enough to prove that it is not an ordinary thing. Otherwise, it is not used by the North Korean inferiors. At this time, tea drinking is afraid to be limited to a certain place and a certain class, which is not popular among the people, so it can only be called the beginning of tea drinking. The rise of tea drinking began in the Tang Dynasty. People in the Tang Dynasty became addicted to tea. Dongpo poem said: "Zhou poetry records bitter tea, tea drinks out of this world." Today's tea is the tea. Since the Tang Dynasty, tea has been used by the leaders of the Qing Dynasty, which is good from top to bottom. It has become a trend for the common people to drink several bowls a day.
Tea drinking originated from the Han people, especially the Han people in the south. It was almost later than that of the northern people. It was especially late in foreign countries. The former quote from the Wen Jian Ji of the Feng family said that "people in the south are fond of drinking, but people in the North don't drink much at the beginning", which can be evidence of different hobbies in the north and south. Therefore, foreign fans must drink tea after the people in the North. The same book also said: "(drinking tea)... Began in Central China and flowed outside the Great Wall. In previous years, when the Uighurs entered the dynasty, they drove home famous horse market tea, which is also strange." It can be seen that the export of tea began in China in the Tang Dynasty, and the export of tea began in the Tang Dynasty. There are also reasons why foreigners like Chinese tea covers.
"History of the Song Dynasty · official records" said: "(song zhezong) at the end of the Yuan Fu, Cheng Yuan Shaoyan, Rong vulgar, eat meat and drink cheese, so tea is rare, and Shu is easy to be superior."
"History of the Ming Dynasty · records of food and goods" said: "the Tibetan people are fond of cheese. If they do not have tea, they will be trapped by disease. Therefore, since the Tang and Song Dynasties, tea has been used to change horses and make Qiang and Rong." The same is true. Lu You's book of the Southern Tang Dynasty mentioned that although Qidan was connected with the Southern Tang Dynasty, he only used empty words to benefit the pearl shells of the southern tea. It's true. Northern Tibet is good at eating meat and must drink tea, because tea can clear the strong taste of meat. Today, Mongolians are good at drinking tea, which can be exemplified by the fact that if they don't drink tea, they are more trapped in disease. No wonder they often use famous horses and Han people to change tea. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, the name of Tuan tea is especially popular among the Tibetans, who often buy it at a high price. In the painting man record of Zhang shunmin of the Song Dynasty, it goes like this: "Su Zirong sent Liao Yao scale as his deputy in Xining, saying: 'cover some small Tuan tea.' Zi Rong said: 'this is the thing offered by the Supreme Court.' the couple dares to meet with the people in the north. Few of them have your son sent Liao to store Tuan tea widely. Since the people in the north of Er do not accept Tuan tea, neither small Tuan tea nor expensive tea. They use two regiments to change one from Tibet."
Like the Huique in the Tang Dynasty, the Qidan in the Song Dynasty, the Tibetan ancient in the Xia and Jin Dynasties, and the people who eat meat and drink cheese are also good at tea. Therefore, in the Ming Dynasty, the tea horses were used to control the Xifan in the area of Tiaohe Xining.
In the Ming Dynasty, although there was no autocracy in the trade of tea, private tea was prohibited from leaving the country. The offenders were beheaded and tea and horses were set up in order to make tea and horses with Xifan. At the same time, in the place where tea is produced, one out of ten tea trees is taken, and eight out of ten tea trees are taken. The need for tea can be done wholeheartedly, but nothing more than "the art of subduing Xirong". It can be seen from this that Chinese tea was spread to foreign countries. On the one hand, because of the requirements of foreign countries' life, on the other hand, because China was unable to conquer foreign countries or needed foreign horses, it had to trade with them or restrain them with tea. Therefore, since the tax was levied in the Tang Dynasty, tea has been closed by the national treasury internally and safety externally.
Tea is a Chinese specialty, or the origin, and then spread to the East and West. First, it describes the origin of tea drinking customs in Japan. Before Chinese tea was introduced into Japan, it was said that there were wild tea in the counties of gaoqiansui, Zhiye seven mountains, feiqian, jiumo eight generations of Mountain Deer, the wife of Zuba, maoyouchuan above Fengqian and Naoto Ono after Fenghou. Whether only the Japanese take it as a drink or not and whether it is planted or not? Silent and unheard of. The tea species in Japan came from China. In the early days of the Ping'an Dynasty, among the rugged emperors in huanwuping City, monks who preached and preached and invited foreign monks to come to the Tang Dynasty. They were the descendants of tea species. When he returned home, Sima kouchou of Taizhou cooked tea as a farewell, that is, he planted it in Sakamoto, Jiangzhou, with tea seeds until the sun. Or that under the rule of Emperor Wu of Nara Dynasty, monk Xing once carried tea in the medicine King's house in Shenzhou, regardless of whether its seed came from China or not. At the beginning of the loss of tea species, there were few Japanese people, especially few drinking. At that time, although the poem written by Yinggong had the sentence "the East didn't sleep in the Ming Dynasty and drank a cup of tea", the trend of drinking tea was not open for about 180 years from the Ping'an Dynasty to the Cang era. It was only a consumer product among noble monks. And ren'an Wenzhi. After entering the Song Dynasty twice, Zen master Rongxi returned home. The cultivation of tea trees and the atmosphere of drinking tea began to spread all over the country. When the Zen master entered the Song Dynasty, he first went to Tiantai Mountain in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province in the summer of ren'an. He felt the spirit of tea and returned home in autumn. With tea, it is planted in the vestibule of leizhenshanfang in Saga County, Fukuoka, which is called Yanshang tea. There are also tea plantations in Qianguang temple, which is made of Toyota in Mitsui County, Tongxian county. For the second time, when Wenzhi was built for a long time, the ship returning to the country first went to Pinghu Weipu in Nagasaki, and the Ministry of the people's Republic of China built a small nunnery and opened a Daochang. The Zen master planted tea near the nunnery. Today, in Kyushu, Japan, tea is produced in Bikan in Nagasaki county and dongxixixiye in Saga county. Drinking water and thinking of the source are all gifts from Zen master Rongxi. Zen master once wrote the book of health preserving by eating tea and cured the hangover of the poet general palace Dynasty with tea, which is famous all over the world. Later, master Hui of the Ming Dynasty also planted tea in the mountain city of Dahe. There were many artificial plants and the wind of drinking tea was prosperous. The master once said: "the secluded and mysterious tea ceremony was re taught the essence of governing Taoism and frugality in Beitiao Tai." Indirectly, it has a great impact on Japanese politics. From then on, to the era of general yoshizon of the eighth generation of Tokugawa, the trend of drinking tea in Japan was more prosperous, and there were many tea shops. At that time, people wrote a poem: "open tea shops everywhere, one hour is one money, life is only simple, and hunger and satiety are natural." This shows the prevailing trend at that time.
This is the beginning of Western tea drinking. Europeans know that tea came from Portugal in the 16th century and spread to Europe. In the early 17th century, the first person to take the lead in the Oriental trade in Europe was the Portuguese, and the base was in Guangdong and Macao. Macao people are the tea drinkers first seen by Europeans. Only Guangdong is not a place where tea is produced, and it has little impact on the spread of tea. Later, the Dutch went east to Fuzhou in southern China and saw the place where Chinese tea was produced. It was 16000 years in the Western calendar. European people first used tea as medicine. At that time, the Dutch East India Company imported very little tea into Europe. It was the beginning of tea in the West. European medicine believed that the function of tea was just like that of Chinese people. French nobles regarded Chinese tea as a treasure and extremely precious. At that time, tea was expensive. There was a legend that brick tea was included in the gold box as a gift. Tea was imported into Britain in about 1660, and the tea shop was built in London. About this time, when King Charles XIII married the Royal daughter of Portugal as the queen of the prince of England in 1662, tea was among the gifts of the queen. This is the first time that the British royal family has had a relationship with tea. After that, the trend of drinking tea came to the people in the second place. At that time, an Englishman named pi pi was given tea and kept a diary saying: "I haven't seen the drink drunk by the Chinese people. I'm afraid this is a medicinal drink that the pharmacist BA lingtie said has the effect of treating colds or cerebral congestion?" Tea was first used as medicine in China and Japan. Later, in 1664, the East India Company offered tea to the king of England. At that time, the price of tea, worth 60 shillings a pound, was extremely expensive. Coffee was imported into Europe in about 1580, 20 years earlier than tea, and was imported by Arab merchants at the beginning. Although it is dominated by the ancestors, in Britain, the backward tea has the power to surpass. By 1700, the tea imported had an average of 2000 pounds a year, and in the next ten years, it had an average of about 140000 pounds. By 1780, Europe had imported 5.5 million pounds, while the United Kingdom had plunged to 12.2 million pounds, leaving the import of coffee behind. Then Britain led India and competed with China to plant tea. With the relationship of import tax, the cultivation of black tea in India developed rapidly. In 1888, the number of black tea exported to Britain exceeded that of Chinese tea. The British have morning tea and afternoon tea. You can't leave tea at home, when you go out, when you meditate and talk. Each person consumes an average of nine pounds of tea per year, which can be described as "a nation addicted to tea".
In Russia and Georgia, tea is called "Chinese tea" or "Liu tea". Even the pronunciation is the same as the Chinese word "tea". This is because in 1893, Liu Junzhou, the 29 generation descendant of Liu's tea shop of the Han family, successfully planted Chinese tea along the Black Sea coast of Georgia.